There have been many different calendar systems developed throughout history, measuring time and the cycles of the major bodies of the solar system that influence the Earth. The creation and development of this field of knowledge has been one of humanity’s oldest sciences. Nonetheless, the calendar system created and used by the original nations of mesoamerica, the Tonalpohualli (the count of Tonal or the count of days) is still, to this day, the most accurate calendar system ever created by humans.
The Tonalpohualli is the astronomical calendaric system with which the
It is founded on the combination of 13 mathematical values and 20 potentials of nature and the universe, creating a cycle of 260 different combinations. It is, gratefully, the legacy left behind by the genius and tenacity of the ancient Mesoamericans known as Mixteca, Nahua, Otomíe, Purepecha, Aztec, Olmec and Maya among others.
The Tonalpohualli is the culmination of thousands of generations of astronomers, mathematicians, artists & philosophers who magnificently melded their wisdom in the Amoxtin (the ancient books or codexes). With this wisdom, the leaders of these ancient socieities governed their nations’ lives in a harmonious, coherent & respectful manner. From the birth and potential of an individual, to the cycles and activities of the city-states known as Kalpulli, all aspects of society were guided by the calculations of the Tonalpohualli.
Few of these Amoxtin survived the extermination by the Europeans in the 16th century, gratefully those that did contained the structure of the Tonalpohualli. The amount of Amoxtin destroyed (and knowledge held therein) will never be known, however the chronicles tell that the fires burned for days. Nevertheless, they are so dense with knowledge that the few that remained continue to be subjects of intense study and scrutiny, continuously revealing new and profound knowledge that those who study them continue to be awed by their wisdom and information to this day.